Project report NOR Gate


Acknowledgement

Aim

Introduction

NOR gate truth table

Material required

Circuit Diagram

Working

Resources


Acknowledgement

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher (Name of the teacher) as well as our principal (Name of the principal)who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic (Write the topic name), which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things I am really thankful to them.

Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame.


Aim

Aim of this project is to demonstrate the working of two input Nor gate using Transistor  and LED


Introduction

The Llgic NOR Gate is a combination of the digital logic OR gate and an inverter or NOT gate connected together in series.

The logic or Boolean expression given for a logic NOR gate is that for Logical Multiplication which it performs on the complements of the inputs. The Boolean expression for a logic NOR gate is denoted by a plus sign, ( + ) with a line or Overline, ( ‾‾ ) over the expression to signify the NOT or logical negation of the NOR gate giving us the Boolean expression of:  X+Y = Z.

Then we can define the operation of a 2-input digital logic NOR gate as being:

“If both X and Y are NOT true, then Z is true”


NOR gate truth table

nor gate truth table


Material required

Transistor:- Transistor is a semiconductor device that can both conduct and insulate. A transistor can act as a switch and an amplifier.
A transistor is a three terminal device. Namely,

  1. Base: This is responsible for activating the transistor.
  2. Collector: This is the positive lead.
  3. Emitter: This is the negative lead.
    Resistor:- The resistor is a passive electrical component to create resistance in the flow of electric current.
    LED:- An LED produces light when electricity flows through.
    Battery:- A 9V dc battery is used to power this circuit.
    Battery snap connector:- To connect the battery terminals to the rest of circuit.
    Soldering Iron:-  To solder the various components used in this project.
    Switches:- For controlling the input to the circuit


    Circuit Diagram

    nor gate circuit diagram


    Working

    Two transistors are used in this project i.e. T1 and T2. Input is provided to T1 through switches X and Y, and T2 is always connected to the supply.

    • When X=0 Y=0

    Transistor T1 gets in cutoff mode, and T2 goes to the saturation mode allowing all the current to flow through LED, in turn turning on the LED. Hence Z=1

    • When X=1 Y=0

    In this case transistor T1 goes to saturation mode and all the current flows through T1 but no current flows through T2 (because current prefers low resistance path) thus LED remains off. Hence Z=0

    • When X=0 Y=1

    In this case transistor T1 goes to saturation mode and all the current flows through T1, no current flows through T2 (because current prefers low resistance path) thus LED remains off. Hence Z=0

    • When X=1 Y=1

    In this case transistor T1 goes to saturation mode and all the current flows through T1, no current flows through T2 (because current prefers low resistance path) thus LED remains off. Hence Z=0

    Resources