Project report AND Gate


Acknowledgement

Aim

Introduction

AND gate truth table

Material required

Circuit Diagram

Working

Resources


 

Acknowledgement

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher (Name of the teacher) as well as our principal (Name of the principal)who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic (Write the topic name), which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things I am really thankful to them.

Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame.


Aim

Aim of this project is to demonstrate the working of two input AND gate using transistor and LED.


Introduction

The Logic AND Gate is a type of digital logic circuit whose output goes HIGH to a logic level 1 only when all of its inputs are HIGH.

The output state of a digital logic AND gate only returns “LOW” again when ANY of its inputs are at a logic level “0”. In other words for a logic AND gate, any LOW input will give a LOW output.

 

The logic or Boolean expression given for a digital logic AND gate is that for Logical Multiplication which is denoted by a single dot or full stop symbol, ( . ) giving us the Boolean expression of:  X.Y = Z.

Then we can define the operation of a digital 2-input logic AND gate as being:

“If both X and Y are true, then Z is true”


AND gate truth table

And gate truth


Material required

Transistor:- Transistor is a semiconductor device that can both conduct and insulate. A transistor can act as a switch and an amplifier.
A transistor is a three terminal device. Namely,

  1. Base: This is responsible for activating the transistor.
  2. Collector: This is the positive lead.
  3. Emitter: This is the negative lead.
    Resistor:- The resistor is a passive electrical component to create resistance in the flow of electric current.
    LED:- An LED produces light when electricity flows through.
    Battery:- A 9V dc battery is used to power this circuit.
    Battery snap connector:- To connect the battery terminals to the rest of circuit.
    Soldering Iron:-  To solder the various components used in this project.
    Switches:- For controlling the input to the circuit


Circuit Diagram

and gate circuit diagram


Working

  • When X=0 Y=0

As the base of T1 and T2 are not connected to positive of supply, both the transistors remain in the cut-off region thus in turn there is no current flow through the LED. Hence Z=0

  • When X=1 Y=0

In this case transistor T1 goes to saturation region but transistor T2 remains in the cut-off region. Overall the LED does not get connected to positive of the supply thus in turn no current flows through the LED. Hence Z=0

  • When X=0 Y=1

In this case transistor T2 goes to saturation region but transistor T1 remains in cut-off region. Overall LED does not get connected to the positive of supply. In turn no current flows through the LED. Hence Z=0

  • When X=1 Y=1

In this case both the transistors T1, T2 go to saturation region allowing current to pass through LED. This turns on the LED. Hence Z=1


Resources